Cannulated Cows – details, Video


“Cannulated cows are the same as all other cows in the herd except that they are fitted with an item called a cannula,” said Natasha Weaver, a senior in animal science. “Basically, the animals have surgery performed upon them that creates a passageway in the side of the animal so researchers can perform readings on what takes place in the cow’s rumen.”

Cows have four compartments in their stomach with the largest being the rumen. This cavity is the focus of operation for the research with cannulated cows.

The rumen is the part of the stomach where the majority of the animal’s digestion occurs, which is what researchers are trying to learn more about. Cows typically consume 50 pounds of foliage per day, and this food sometimes does not provide the best possible nutrient values for the animals

“We have had an emphasis on nutrition for years because of its importance in regards to milk production,” said Maurice Eastridge, professor of dairy nutrition. “By researching what nutrients the cows receive from various feed combinations, we are hoping to improve nutrition recommendations for dairy producers and the livestock industry in general.”

The digestion of food for nutrients in the rumen is done by millions of microorganisms. The abundance of microbes also keeps the cannulated cow healthy, often the healthiest in the herd, Weaver said.

“You would think that by having an opening in their sides would allow outside microbes to enter and infect the cows, but with there being such a numerous presence of natural microbes already in the rumen, the new microbes cannot compete for nutrients to survive,” Weaver said.

Because these cows are so healthy, some farmers keep a cannulated cow on the farm to help improve the health of the other animals in the herd.

“Basically, the cannulated cows serve as a rumen fluid donor to sick animals. This is done by extracting rumen fluid contents from the cannulated cow and feeding it to the sick cow,” Eastridge said. “The microorganisms in the fluid multiply and take the place of the bad organisms in the sick cow and make the cow healthy again.”

Cow sets World record – Produced 2,16,891 kg of Milk lifetime


Dairy farmer Eric Patenaude kisses his Guinness World Records champion milking cow, has provided 216,891 kg of milk during her lifetime.

Most milk produced in a lifetime: Canadian cow sets world record


To dairy farmers the world over, Smurf is a celebrity cow.

Smurf, a 16-year-old Holstein cow has produced more than 57,000 gallons of milk (that’s 216,891 kg or 478,163 pounds) in now 12 lactations – and is still producing – at “La Ferme Gilette” in Embrun, Ontario, just outside Ottawa, has broken the Guinness World Record for most milk produced over a lifetime. In the history of the world, no cow has been her equal.

The Patenaude family of Embrun, Ontario, has a long history in the country. It has been nine generations since the family first arrived from France, and the family has flourished. The family farm run by Gilles Patenaude and his sons was originally purchased by his grandfather back in 1881. Although originally a commercial production dairy, since 1980 Gilles and his sons, Marc, Louis, Vincent and Mathieu, have built the business into a top-class purebred Holstein breeding facility.

Their cows are all registered Holsteins, with about 450 cows milking, a similar number of dry cows and replacement heifers and about 100 bulls. Ferme Gillette is well known for producing excellent breeding bulls, with sales to A.I. units around the Canada and export sales around the world. Milking takes place three times a day in a double-12 parallel parlour with a pipeline. While Canada has long been renowned for the quality of its Holstein cattle, the previous record-holder was from Japan. It remains to be seen what Gillette Emperor Smurf final production record will be.


Use of MRI scan in Veterinary Practice – Principle, Advantage and Disadvantages


Principles of MRI:

Our body made up of chemical composition (ie: hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen sodium, phosphotus, potassium etc.)

Atoms these elements have different number of protons in their nucleus and possess different magnetic property.

Protons of hydrogen atom are the most abundant in the body in the form of water.

Magnetic properties of these atoms have been utilized to produce magnetic resonance signals and images.

When a patient is placed in a strong magnetic field in MR scanner, hydrogen nucleus in the body align with the applied external magnetic field.

Hydrogen nuclei in the patients body absorbs the energy and then generates the MR signal when exposed to short bursts of electromagnetic energy in form of radio frequency pulse.

The magnet creates a strong magnetic field which aligns the protons of hydrogen atoms which are then exposed to a beam of radio waves.

This spins the various protons of the body and produce a faint signal which is detected by receiver portion of the MRI scanner. The receiver information is processed by computer and image is produced.

Advantages :

1. Excellent soft tissue contrast resolution

2. Ability to obtain direct transverse, sagittal, coronal and oblique images

3. Does not use ionizing radiation

4. Does not produce bone/air artefacts


1. Longer imaging time

2. Complexity of the equipment and scan acquisition

3. High Cost

4. Inability to demonstrate calcification or cortical bone details

5. Bullet shrapnel and metallic fragments may move and become projectile (Contraindicated for patients with Cardiac pacemakers, dental implants, heart valve prosthesis and aneurysm clips)






How Animals See the World

Different animals have different kinds of color vision. Some animals like dog and cats have very poor color vision and others have very good color vision.

In fact some birds and bees have super color vision and see colors (in ultraviolet range) that humans could not see.

All representations are artistic representations – based on research