Domestic Chicken too can be infected with Rabies virus

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Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India

Julie Baby, Reeta Subramaniam Mani, Swapna Susan Abraham, Asha T. Thankappan, Prasad Madhavan Pillai, Ashwini Manoor Anand, […view 2 more…], Sachin Sreekumar

Abstract

Background

Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.

Principal Findings

The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.

Significance

This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

Rabies is a fatal viral disease affecting humans and other animals. Though all warm blooded animals are susceptible to this disease, rabies is commonly observed in mammals. Birds can be experimentally infected with this virus; however, naturally occurring rabies infection in birds has been reported very rarely. We report an unusual case of natural rabies infection in a domestic fowl from India. The bird was bitten by a stray dog and succumbed after a month. The brain tissue from the carcass was tested at a laboratory and was found to be positive for rabies virus antigens. This report indicates that rabies is a disease that can affect birds. Most often birds succumb due to shock or complication of animal bite injury and may not survive until the development of clinical signs of rabies infection. Moreover, fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in a bird may be a reason for the disease in these species being underestimated. Butchering and handling of virus-infected poultry may pose a potential biohazard.

Citation: Baby J, Mani RS, Abraham SS, Thankappan AT, Pillai PM, Anand AM, et al. (2015) Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(7): e0003942. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003942

Editor: Charles E. Rupprecht, The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, UNITED STATES

Received: March 16, 2015; Accepted: June 30, 2015; Published: July 22, 2015

John Boyd Dunlop – A Veterinary Surgeon who invented Pneumatic Tyres

Dunlop

John Boyd Dunlop was born on a farm in Dreghorn, North Ayrshire, and studied to be a veterinary surgeon at the Dick Vet, University of Edinburgh.

Dunlop developed pneumatic tyres for his son’s tricycle and soon had them made commercially in Scotland. A cyclist using his tyres began to win all races and drew the attention of Harvey Du Cros.  He sold his rights to the pneumatic tyres to a company he formed with the president of the Irish Cyclists’ Association, Harvey Du Cros, for a small cash sum and a small shareholding in their pneumatic tyre business. Dunlop withdrew in 1896.

The company that bore his name, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company, was not incorporated until later using the name well-known to the public but it was Du Cros’s creation.

Selection of Goats for Govt Schemes

Goats are being given to poor and economically weak people from the rural villages by many state government and cooperative societies to improve their livelihood.
The goats are usually bought in the presence of the local vet and the health condition of the animals are assessed by him and insured . Following information may help you to buy healthy stocks for the farmers.

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Tallest & Largest Animals in the World

Tallest & Largest Dog in the World

Largest Dog 2

Largest Dog 1

 

A Great Dane dog named George also known as “Giant George” is the tallest dog ever by Guinness World Records. George was born on November 17, 2005, and was owned by David Nasser .

While measured 42 5/8 inches high (109 cm) at the midpoint of the neck and his legitimate height was 39 1/8 inches (99 cm) at the withers and he weighed 245 pounds (111 kg),At the time of his death on October 17, 2013, Giant George resided in Tucson, Arizona.

 

Tallest Cow in the World

Tallest Cow 1

Tallest Cow 2

“Blosom” a Holstein Cow was the tallest cow to have ever lived and recognized by Guinness World Records. The giant Holstein, who stood just over 6 feet, 2 inches tall, died May 26 at the age of 13 after suffering an irreparable leg injury. The video and photos honor the tallest Cow will be featured in the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records.

 

Heaviest Cattle in the World

Heaviest Cattle 1

Heaviest Cattle 2

“Trigger” the Friesian is a 6ft 5in Bullock and still growing, Weighing in at nearly 1.2 tonnes and measuring a staggering 14ft from nose to tail,

 

World’s tallest living horse

Tallest Horse

Jake is World’s tallest living horse recognized by the Guinness World Records.w. He is just a quarter-inch short of 6 feet 11 inches, and weighs about 2,600 pounds.